Association for Conflict Resolution
Center for Conservation Peacebuilding
Conservation International – Conservation and Peace
Environmental Change and Security Program at the Woodrow Wilson Center
International Institute for Sustainable Development Conflict-Sensitive Conservation
John S. McCain III National Center for Environmental Conflict Resolution
Mediators Beyond Borders International
The Wilson Center The Environmental Change and Security Program
Publications by Dr. Larry Susskind
Susskind, Lawrence. (2014). Good for You, Great for Me: Finding the Trading Zone and Winning at Win-Win Negotiationi.
Susskind, Lawrence & Field, Patrick & Hulet, Carri & Rumore, Danya. (2015). Managing Climate Risks in Coastal Communities.
Susskind, L., 2020. “Initiating Collaboration in the Midst of a Standoff: What do Do at that Critical Moment,” Negotiation Journal.
Susskind, L., Choudhury, E., & Kock, G., 2019. “Perspectives on Water Diplomacy: Key Findings, Remaining Challenges, and Future Directions,” In S. Islam & Smith, K.M., Interdisciplinary Collaboration for Water Diplomacy: A Principled and Pragmatic Approach. CRC Press.
Susskind, L., Doty, A., & Hasz, A., 2018. “Planning for Readiness—and Growth, Using climate vulnerability assessments and long-range master planning, Boston and Cambridge address the dual demands of climate change and economic development,” Planning, 84, no. 3, PP. 32-36.
Susskind, L., et al., 2017. Environmental Problem-Solving: Balancing Science and Politics Using Consensus Building Tools (Also available as an e-book) Anthem Press.
Hartman, J. & Susskind, L., 2019. Negotiation and Urban Planning.
Publications by Francine Madden
Madden, Francine & Mcquinn, Brian. 2017. Conservation Conflict Transformation: Addressing the Missing Link in Wildlife Conservation.
Draheim, M. and Madden, F. eds. 2015. Human-Wildlife Conflict: Complexity in the Marine Environment. Oxford University Press, UK.
Madden, F. 2015. People and Wolves in Washington: Stakeholder Conflict Assessment and Recommendations for Conflict Transformation. For the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Madden, Francine & Mcquinn, Brian. 2014. “Conservation’s blind spot: The case for conflict transformation in wildlife conservation.” Biological Conservation. 178. 97–106.
Madden, F. 2008. The Growing Conflict Between Humans and Wildlife: Law and Policy as Contributing and Mitigating Factors, Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy. 11:2-3, 189-206.
Steve M. Redpath, Juliette Young, Anna Everly, William M. Adams, William J. Sutherland, Andrew Whitehouse, Arjun Amar, Robert A. Lambert, John D.C. Linnell, Allan Watt, and R.J. Guttierez, “Understanding and Managing Conservation Conflicts,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28, no. 2 (2013): 100-109.
Redpath, R. Gutiérrez, K. Wood, & J. Young (Eds.), Conflicts in Conservation: Navigating Towards Solutions(Ecological Reviews,pp. Vii-X). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Consensus Building: A number of collaborative decision making techniques in which a facilitator or mediator is used to assist diverse or competing interest groups to reach agreement on policy matters, environmental conflicts, or other issues in controversy affecting a large number of people. Consensus building processes are typically used to foster dialogue, clarify areas of agreement and disagreement, improve the information on which a decision may be based, and resolve controversial issues in ways that all interests find acceptable. Consensus building typically involves deliberate face-to-face interaction among representatives of stakeholder groups. The goals of consensus building are to gain early engagement from affected interests with differing viewpoints, produce sound policies with a wide range of support, and reduce the likelihood of subsequent disagreements or legal challenges. (Udall Foundation NCECR)
Conflict Assessment: (also known as “convening”) helps to identify the issues in controversy in a given situation, the affected interests, and the appropriate form(s) of handling the conflict. The assessment process typically involves conferring with potentially interested persons regarding a situation involving conflict in order to: assess the causes of the conflict; identify the entities and individuals who would be substantively affected by the conflict’s outcome; assess those persons’ interests and identify a preliminary set of issues that they believe relevant; evaluate the feasibility of using a consensus-building or other collaborative process to address the issues; educate interested persons on consensus and collaborative processes so as to help them think through whether they would wish to participate; and design the structure and membership of a negotiating committee or other collaborative process (if any) to address the conflict. (Udall Foundation NCECR)
Conflict transformation: A recently developed concept that emphasizes addressing the structural roots of conflict by changing existing patterns of behavior and creating a culture of nonviolent approaches. It proposes an integrated approach to peacebuilding that aims to bring about long-term changes in personal, relational, structural, and cultural dimensions. Recognizing that societies in conflict have existing systems that 16 Constabulary force still function, conflict transformation focuses on building up local institutions as well as reducing drivers of conflict. (United States Institute of Peace)
Facilitation: The process or set of skills by which a third party attempts to help the disputants move toward resolution of their dispute. Facilitation can operate at many levels, from providing good offices to a more active role as a mediator. It may mean helping the parties set ground rules and agendas for meetings, helping with communication between the parties, and analysis of the situation and possible outcomes—in general, helping the participants keep on track and working toward their mutual goals. It may also mean helping them set those goals. (United States Institute of Peace)
Identity: Identity refers to the way people see themselves—the groups they feel a part of, the aspects of themselves that they use to describe themselves. Some theorists distinguish between collective identity, social identity, and personal identity. However, all are related in one way or another to a description of who one is, and how one fits into his or her social group and society overall. Identity conflicts are conflicts that develop when a person or group feels that their sense of self is threatened or denied legitimacy or respect. Religious, ethnic, and racial conflicts are examples of identity conflicts. Identity politics tries to exploit those conflicts for political advantage.(United States Institute of Peace)
Mediation: A mode of negotiation in which a mutually acceptable third party helps the parties to a conflict find a solution that they cannot find by themselves. It is a three-sided political process in which the mediator builds and then draws upon relationships with the other two parties to help them reach a settlement. Unlike judges or arbitrators, mediators have no authority to decide the dispute between the parties, although powerful mediators may bring to the table considerable capability to influence the outcome. Mediators are typically from outside the conflict. Sometimes mediators are impartial and neutral, in other cases they have a strategic interest that motivates them to promote a negotiated outcome. Mediators may focus on facilitating communication and negotiation but they also may offer solutions and use leverage, including positive and negative incentives, to persuade the parties to achieve an agreement. (United States Institute of Peace)
Third-party Neutral Environmental Conflict Resolution Professional: An individual with experience and expertise serving as an impartial third-party to assist parties in collaborative problem solving (conflict prevention, management and resolution) for environmental, natural resource, or public lands issues. Services typically involve assessment, process design, mediation and facilitation. It does not include a role as a decision-maker, a representative/advocate, or a stakeholder. (Udall Foundation NCECR)
Negotiation: The process of communication and bargaining between parties seeking to arrive at a mutually acceptable outcome on issues of shared concern. The process typically involves compromise and concessions and is designed to result in an agreement, although sometimes a party participates in negotiations for other reasons (to score propaganda points or to appease domestic political forces, for example). Prenegotiation refers to preliminary talks to agree on such issues as the format, procedures, time frame, who will participate, and sometimes the scope of the formal talks. Endgame refers to the final stages of a negotiation, when substantive progress has been made but important details remain to be ironed out and the agreement hammered into final form.(United States Institute of Peace)
Peacebuilding: involves a range of measures targeted to reduce the risk of lapsing or relapsing into conflict by strengthening national capacities at all levels for conflict management, and to lay the foundations for sustainable peace and development. Peacebuilding strategies must be coherent and tailored to the specific needs of the country concerned, based on national ownership, and should comprise a carefully prioritized, sequenced, and therefore relatively narrow set of activities aimed at achieving the above objectives. (U.N. Secretary General’s Policy Committee 2007)
Process Design: A process whereby a neutral assists an organization or group to develop a process for addressing a particular controversy or a series of disputes. Typically, a process designer interviews representatives of interested or affected groups (including the project sponsors) about their perceptions and interests regarding the conflict in question, and their suggestions for useful ways to handle it. The designer will then develop a report with recommendations for a specific process to address the issues in the dispute, including the types and number of meetings, methods for bringing important information to the group, likely time requirements, realistic expectations for a product, and other considerations. (Udall Foundation NCECR)
Third party: An individual or group that gets involved to help disputants resolve their problem, typically as mediators, arbitrators, or conciliators. Third parties can be insiders or outsiders, impartial or partial. Neutrality is required in some cases, but the ability to put pressure on one or both sides through carrots or sticks can be useful. (United States Institute of Peace)